Sri Srinivasa Acarya
Rämacandra Kaviräja, the son of Khaëòaväsé Ciraïjéva and Sunanda, was a
disciple of Çréniväsa Äcärya and the most intimate friend of Narottama
däsa Öhäkura, who prayed several times for his association. His
youngest brother was Govinda Kaviräja. Çréla Jéva Gosvämé very much
appreciated Çré Rämacandra Kaviräja’s great devotion to Lord Kåñëa and
therefore gave him the title Kaviräja. Çré Rämacandra Kaviräja, who was
perpetually disinterested in family life, greatly assisted in the
preaching work of Çréniväsa Äcärya and Narottama däsa Öhäkura. He
resided at first in Çrékhaëòa but later in the village of Kumära-nagara
on the bank of the Ganges.
Govinda Kaviräja was the brother of
Rämacandra Kaviräja and youngest son of Ciraïjéva of Çrékhaëòa.
Although at first a çäkta, or worshiper of Goddess Durgä, he was later
initiated by Çréniväsa Äcärya Prabhu. Govinda Kaviräja also resided
first in Çrékhaëòa and then in Kumära-nagara, but later he moved to the
village known as Teliyä Budhari, on the southern bank of the river
Padmä. Since Govinda Kaviräja, the author of two books, Saìgéta-mädhava
and Gétämåta, was a great Vaiñëava kavi, or poet, Çréla Jéva Gosvämé
gave him the title Kaviräja. He is described in the Bhakti-ratnäkara
(Ninth Wave). (A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. Sri Chaitanya
Charitamrta Adi-lila 11:51. purport.)
Srila Krsnadasa Kaviraja
took pleasure in writing the infrequent passages which glorified Gopala
Bhatta, and he never told Sri Bhatta how he had written them.
I cannot write extentively about the
depth of knowledge of Sri Gopala Bhatta during his life in Vrndavana
for fear the book will become too large. (Bhakti-ratnakara. KHÄ227.)
Bhatta had given many comments on the book ”Krsnakarmamrta• which gave
much pleasure to all the Vaisnavas. (Bhakti-ratnakara. KHÄ228.)
Gopala Bhatta, a remarkable person in the path of pure devotion had
performed many supernatural activities. (Bhakti-ratnakara. KHÄ229.)
At a much later time, Srinivasa met him and got his desires fulfilled. (Bhakti-ratnakara. KHÄ230.)
the order of Prabhu, Srinivasa took his initiation from Gopala Bhatta
and later propagated the Gosvami scriptures in Gauda.
Prabhu empowered Sri Rupa and others
to write and compile scriptures on Vaisnava religion, for the
propogation of those scriptures he empowered Srinivasa.
Acarya and Sri Thakura Mahasaya were
of the same soul in their devotion to Prabhu. Thakura Mahasaya had
revealed the powers of both Rupa Gosvami and Srinivasa in his slokas.
The slokas by Thakura Mahasaya say:
"When shall I be able to find Sri Caitanya deva, the ocean of kindness,
within the range of my vision? His aim was to create many Vaisnava
scriptures through the intellect of Sri Rupa and others to later
disseminate those scriptures to the people of the world through the
efforts of Srinivasa." (Bhakti-ratnakara. KHÄ234.)
Acarya was a grea scholar who benedicted the world by distributing
those valuable Vaisnava books.(Bhakti-ratnakara. KHÄ235.)
favor of Lokenatha to Narottma" At that time Narottama arrived in
Vrndavana and immediately engaged himself in the continous service of
Sri Lokenatha. (Bhakti-ratnakara. KHÄ345.)
Lokenatha was satisfied with Narottama's attitude and gave him Diksha mantra. (Bhakti-ratnakara. KHÄ346.)
Sri Gopala Bhatta and the other Vaisnavas accepted Narottama as an intimate friend. (Bhakti-ratnakara. KHÄ347.)
Narottama got the title Thakura Mahasaya along with the affection of Sri Jiva Gosvami. (Bhakti-ratnakara. KHÄ348.)
Acarya met narottama in Vrndavana and gradually a dynamic new circle of
Vaisnavas was established there.(Bhakti-ratnakara. KHÄ349.)
Srinivasa also met Shyamananda in Vrndavana.(Bhakti-ratnakara. KHÄ350.)
The Embodiment of Lord Caitanya’s Love
by Satyaräja däsa
The Lives of the Vaishnava Saints © 1991 by Steven Rosen (Satyaräja
Däsa). All rights reserved. Order from Folk Books, P.O. Box 400716,
Brooklyn, NY 11240.]
It was the middle of the sixteenth century.
Aspiring for perfection in spiritual life, young Çréniväsa had tried to
meet Lord Caitanya and His disciple Gadädhara. But Çréniväsa came too
late—they passed away before he could become their student. And so too
did the great Rüpa Gosvämé and Sanätana Gosvämé. But as Çréniväsa
journeyed to the holy town Våndävana, Rüpa and Sanätana appeared to him
in a dream. Go on to Våndävana, they told him, and learn from the great
gosvämés Jéva and Gopäla Bhaööa.
ÇRÉNIVÄSA ÄCÄRYA is
one of the most important personalities in the religious history of
Bengal, perhaps the most important Vaiñëava teacher in the generation
immediately following Çré Caitanya Mahäprabhu. He is chiefly remembered
as the illustrious disciple of Gopäla Bhaööa Gosvämé and Jéva Gosvämé.
His achievements include delivering the writings of the Gosvämés from
Våndävana to Bengal, converting King Birhambir to Vaiñëavism, and
originating the Manohar Shoy style of kértana. At Kheturi, Bengal, he
co-organized the first Gaura Purëéma Festival (celebrating the
anniversary of Caitanya Mahäprabhu’s appearance in this world), which
Narottama, Çyämänanda, and thousands of other Vaiñëavas attended.
Äcärya’s parents—the brähmaëa Gaìgädhara Bhaööäcärya and his wife,
Lakñmé Priyä—lived in the small village of Cakhandi, on the bank of the
Ganges in the Burdwan district of Bengal. They longed to raise a child
who would be a great devotee, but until the birth of Çréniväsa, they
were child-less for many years.
Gaìgädhara was himself a great
devotee of the Golden Avatära, Lord Caitanya Mahäprabhu, the
incarnation of Çré Çré Rädhä and Kåñëa predicted in the scriptures.
Lord Caitanya had appeared in Navadvépa and was currently in the world.
Gaìgädhara spent much of his time hearing and retelling the stories of
Lord Caitanya’s pastimes (lélä) with the Lord’s intimate associates. He
wanted to see Lord Caitanya, but social and familial obligations kept
him at home, so he resolved to meditate on the Lord in separation. In
1510, however, he could not tolerate the separation any longer. He set
out for Navadvépa to see the Lord of his life. After only seven miles,
as far as the village of Katwa, he learned that Nimäi of
Nadiyä—Caitanya Mahäprabhu—was in that very village taking sannyäsa,
the renounced order of life.
“What?” cried Gaìgädhara. “Why must
my Lord take the renounced order? This austerity is reserved for human
beings like me so we can overcome our attachments to this world.
Certainly there is no need for Çré Nimäi, the Supreme Personality of
Godhead, to live the harsh life of an ascetic.”
reservations were mixed with excitement: he would soon see his Lord
face to face. When he approached the sacrificial area where Çré Nimäi
was taking sannyäsa, he saw the Lord’s intimate associates—Nityänanda
Prabhu, Candraçekhara Äcärya, Mukunda Datta, and many others. He saw
Madhu Çilä, the barber, preparing to cut Nimäi’s beautiful locks of
raven black hair.
“No!” the onlookers were saying. “Please
stop!” They, like Gaìgädhara, could not conceive of the Lord in the
renounced order of life. Even Madhu, who had the good fortune to touch
the Lord’s head, could cut His hair out of duty only, weeping
profusely. Madhu and the others knew that the Lord had decided to set
an example for the entire religious world and stress the importance of
renunciation. There was nothing they could do.
Bhärati, the sannyäsa-guru, gave Nimäi His new sannyäsa name, “Çré
Kåñëa Caitanya.” The crowd was in shock: “Beautiful Nimäi is really
taking sannyäsa!” They couldn’t believe their eyes, from which tears
were flowing incessantly. But the deed was done.
Madhu fainted. Why
had he shaved the Lord’s head? It was as if he had been controlled by
the Lord’s own hand to fulfill the Lord’s own desire. “Caitanya!
Caitanya!” said Gaìgädhara Bhaööäcärya to himself. “Caitanya! Caitanya!
Caitanya!” he repeated again and again. His eyes pleaded with everyone
there: he wanted to understand what had just happened, but all he could
do was mutter in a stupor of mixed emotions.
himself calling the Lord’s names aloud with uncontrollable
enthusiasm—“Caitanya! Çré Kåñëa Caitanya! Çré Kåñëa Caitanya!”
returned to Cakhandi, half mad with ecstasy, unable to stop repeating
the Lord’s names. He told his wife what had happened, and she too was
overcome with ecstasy. As the days passed, their ecstasy increased, and
the whole town of Cakhandi marveled at Gaìgädhara’s transformation.
Seeing Gaìgädhara’s absorption in Çré Caitanya’s name, his wife and the
other villagers began calling him Caitanya Däsa.
Journey To Puré
Däsa and his wife went to Jagannätha Puré, where Lord Caitanya had gone
after accepting the renounced order. When the couple arrived, they went
to Çré Caitanya and surrendered at His feet.
“Lord Jagannätha is
very happy that you have come here,” the Lord said. “Go to the temple
and see His Deity form. The lotus-eyed Lord is extremely merciful, so
please go see Him.”
Govinda, Lord Caitanya’s personal servant,
accompanied Caitanya Däsa and his wife to the temple, where they
offered many prayers at the feet of Lord Jagannätha. Weeping tears of
divine love, the happy brähmaëa couple were soon escorted to the
luxurious accommodations Lord Caitanya had arranged for them. They
spent several happy days with Çré Caitanya in Jagannätha Puré.
day Lord Caitanya told His servant of His plans for the couple.
“Govinda,” the Lord said, “although Caitanya Däsa and his wife have not
mentioned it to Me, I know they would like to have a child. They said
so in front of Lord Jagannätha, who is nondifferent from Me. They have
prayed sincerely, and I know their hearts. Their desired offspring will
soon appear. His name will be Çréniväsa, and he will be a greatly
beautiful child. Through Rüpa and Sanätana I will manifest the
bhakti-çästras, and through Çréniväsa I will distribute them. Caitanya
Däsa and his wife should quickly return to Chakandhi.”
The Appearance of Çréniväsa
Cakhandi the couple had a beautiful baby boy, whom they named
Çréniväsa. He was born in the second or third decade of the sixteenth
century on the auspicious full-moon day of the month of Vaiçäkhä
(April–May). Lakñmé Priyä’s father, Balaräma Vipra, a learned
astrologer, told the happy couple that their son was a mahäpuruña, a
divinely empowered soul.
The boy had a broad chest and a long,
elegant nose, and his beautiful eyes extended like lotus petals. Like
Lord Caitanya, he had a bodily luster resembling molten gold and arms
that extended down to his knees. According to custom, Caitanya Däsa and
Lakñmé Priyä gave charity to the brähmaëas, and the brähmaëas blessed
Lakñmé Priyä would constantly
sing the glories of Lord Caitanya into the child’s ears, and the
melodious sounds made him joyful. As Çréniväsa grew, he learned to
chant the names of Caitanya Mahäprabhu and Rädhä-Kåñëa. Soon this small
crescent moon known as Çréniväsa grew full and was known as the
brightest and most beautiful boy in Cakhandi. He studied under the
famed Dhanaïjaya Vidyäväcaspati, who taught him all branches of Vedic
learning, including religion, logic, poetry, political science,
grammar, and Äyurveda.
According to the Prema-viläsa, Dhanaïjaya
Vidyäväcaspati said that he had nothing to teach Çréniväsa. The
Prema-viläsa also relates that the goddess of education appeared to
Çréniväsa in a dream and told him she would make him proficient in all
areas of learning, especially the scriptures. Still, Çréniväsa became
known as Dhanaïjaya Vidyävacaspati’s prize pupil, and as such he was
the pride of Cakhandi. He was loved by all the townspeople, who saw him
as a precious gem.
Narahari Sarakära Öhäkura
Çréniväsa’s popularity, he met Narahari Sarakära, an intimate associate
of Lord Caitanya from nearby Çrékhaëòa. Narahari Sarakära’s intense
devotion had pleased Lord Caitanya, and Narahari had the distinction of
being allowed to sing the Lord’s glories in the Lord’s presence,
although the Lord, out of humility, would not let anyone else do so.
This distinction impressed young Çréniväsa, and he accepted Çré
Narahari as his first instructing guru.
After meeting Narahari
Sarakära, Çréniväsa began to show signs of ecstasy. Narahari told
Çréniväsa to go to Puré to see Çré Caitanya Mahäprabhu. While Çréniväsa
was considering how to execute the instruction, his father passed away
from this mortal world after seven days of fever. It was a shock to the
family, and Çréniväsa did all he could to console his mother.
the omniscient Çré Caitanya Mahäprabhu was preparing His associates for
Çréniväsa’s arrival. He had already written to Rüpa, Sanätana, and
Gopäla Bhaööa Gosvämés requesting them to teach Çréniväsa spiritual
life. And He asked Gadädhara Paëòita in Jagannätha Puré to teach
Çréniväsa the Çrémad-Bhägavatam.
Narahari Sarakära advised Çréniväsa
to see to his mother’s care in Jajigram, where her father and brothers
had moved from Cakhandi. Then Çréniväsa was to proceed to Puré to
associate with Lord Caitanya. Çréniväsa asked Narahari to initiate him
into the chanting of Kåñëa's name, but Narahari told him that Lord
Caitanya wanted him to take initiation from Gopäla Bhaööa Gosvämé.
Meeting with Gadädhara Paëòita
a boy, Çréniväsa set out with a companion for Puré. On the way, he
learned that Çré Caitanya had left this world. Then Lord Caitanya—along
with Nityänanda Prabhu, who had also passed away—appeared to Çréniväsa
“on the pretext of a dream” and consoled him. The phrase shopna chaley
(“on the pretext of a dream”) appears frequently in Bengali literature
of the period and is usually taken to mean “in a spiritual vision.”
Çréniväsa remained grief-stricken. He went to the Gopénätha temple in
Puré to take shelter of Gadädhara Paëòita. The Paëòita was overcome
with separation from Lord Caitanya, and tears always flowed from his
eyes. Çréniväsa bowed at Çré Gadädhara’s feet and introduced himself.
Paëòita became joyful. “I’m glad you have come and introduced
yourself,” he said. “Just before passing away, Caitanya Mahäprabhu told
me to teach you the Bhägavatam. He knew you would arrive in Puré one
day, and He asked me to explain Kåñëa-lélä to you.”
Paëòita’s joy—he could now fulfill this order of the Lord—again turned
to sadness. “I cannot teach you Bhägavatam at this time, O young
Çréniväsa,” he said, “for the manuscript in my possession has become
illegible from the tears I have cried onto its pages.”
touched the sacred book to his head and felt ecstasy arise within
himself. Nonetheless, the problem of studying a book that had been
rendered illegible remained. But Çré Gadädhara and Çréniväsa would not
be swayed from their purpose. The will of Mahäprabhu could not be
obstructed. Çré Gadädhara sent a message to Narahari Sarakära in Bengal
asking him to secure another manuscript of Çrémad-Bhägavatam. Narahari
replied that another copy was available and that a messenger should be
dispatched immediately. Gadädhara sent Çréniväsa himself and told him
to hurry. The separation from Lord Caitanya was intolerable, he said,
and he didn’t know how long he could stay in this world.
leaving, Çréniväsa fulfilled a long-cherished desire to see Lord
Caitanya’s associates. He went to the homes of Rämänanda Räya, Çikhi
Mähiti, Särvabhauma Bhaööäcärya, Vakreçvara Paëòita, Paramänanda Puré,
Gopénätha Äcärya, and many others. He also went to see King
Pratäparudra, but according to the Bhakti-ratnäkara the king had gone
away in solitude to lament the Lord’s passing.
Çréniväsa as Gaura Çakti
reminded the great personalities in Puré of Lord Caitanya. Seeing his
intense and unprecedented love of Godhead, the devotees could
understand that he was Gaura Çakti, the embodiment of the energy of
Caitanya Mahäprabhu. According to the Prema-viläsa, Çréniväsa is an
incarnation of Lord Caitanya’s ecstasy. The Lord’s intimate associates
could naturally perceive this and could understand that through
Çréniväsa the eternal message of Lord Caitanya—the message of the Vedic
literature—would be widely distributed.
Lord Caitanya had broken
open the storehouse of nectarean love of God, and the Gosvämés, by
writing books, had taken that nectar and placed it in tangible vessels.
Çréniväsa would see that these vessels were circulated among all
sincere souls. The intimate associates of the Lord gave Çréniväsa
instructions and advice for carrying on the mission.
arrived in Bengal and received the copy of the Bhägavatam from Narahari
Sarakära Öhäkura, he learned that Gadädhara Paëòita had passed away.
The news was a terrible blow, and Çréniväsa lamented. Then Gadädhara
Paëòita appeared to him on the pretext of a dream and encouraged him to
Çréniväsa reflected on the inconceivable will of the
Lord. Why had He taken away the person who was to teach him the
Bhägavatam? Was there a new plan? Was someone else to teach him the
sacred scriptures? Some say that Çréniväsa fell despondent at this
time, but not much is known about the years that followed Çré
Gadädhara’s passing from this world. It is generally assumed that
Çréniväsa spent this time at first in a heartbroken state and then in
serious meditation. He probably continued his studies, as he was still
in his teens.
When Çré Jähnavä Devé, the wife of Nityänanda Prabhu,
went to Våndävana, Rüpa Gosvämé asked her to send Çréniväsa to
Våndävana as soon as possible. On her return to Bengal, she relayed the
message to Narahari. Çré Caitanya had told the Gosvämés of Vraja to
train Çréniväsa, and Narahari advised him to hasten to Våndävana so
that the Lord’s command should not be violated.
heightened Çréniväsa’s desire to study bhakti literature with Rüpa and
Sanätana. Had he gone to Våndävana then, he would have met Rüpa and
Sanätana. But he decided to visit the homes of Lord Caitanya’s
principal associates on the way, stopping at Navadvépa to visit Çré
Association with The Navadvépa Devotees
was the second time Çréniväsa delayed a journey: first the journey to
see Gadädhara Paëòita, and now Rüpa and Sanätana. Perhaps Çréniväsa’s
enthusiasm to associate with Lord Caitanya’s direct followers in Puré
and Navadvépa was so overwhelming that he was unable to heed the advice
of his forebears. Some say that all of this was the will of providence,
so that Çréniväsa would take initiation from Gopäla Bhaööa Gosvämé.
Others say that Çréniväsa, by his example, was teaching the importance
of pilgrimage and association with devotees.
enthralled with the home of Çré Caitanya in Navadvépa (Mäyäpur), where
he met Viñëupriyä Devé, the Lord’s revered widow, and her esteemed
servants, Vaàçivadana Öhäkura and Éçäna Prabhu. They all blessed
Çréniväsa, and he stayed with them for several days, hearing the
pastimes of Lord Caitanya.
During those days he watched Viñëupriyä
Devé perform severe austerities. For example, she would chant the
mahä-mantra—Hare Kåñëa, Hare Kåñëa, Kåñëa Kåñëa, Hare Hare/ Hare Räma,
Hare Räma, Räma Räma, Hare Hare—over each grain of rice she was to eat.
When she was finished with her daily chanting, she would eat only the
grains she had set aside.
"Truly," Çréniväsa said, "this is a wife who was worthy of Çré Caitanya."
also met Damodara Paëòita, Çuklämbara, Muräri Gupta, and other early
friends and intimates of Lord Caitanya in Navadvépa. From there
Çréniväsa went to nearby Çäntipura, where he was warmly greeted by Çré
Advaita’s wife, Sétä Öhäkuräëé, and her sons Acyuta and Gopäla.
Çréniväsa Meets Jähnavä Devé
Çréniväsa visited the house of Nityänanda Prabhu in Khardaha, where
Jähnavä Devé, her son Bérabhadra, and others greeted Çréniväsa as if he
were part of their own family. But Jähnavä Devé encouraged him to start
for Våndävana without delay because Rüpa and Sanätana would soon rejoin
the Lord in the spiritual world.
On the way to Våndävana, Çréniväsa
stopped at the well-known Abhiräma Öhäkura’s house in Khanakul
Krishnanagar to deliver a letter from Jähnavä Devé. The Öhäkura greeted
him with three loving lashes from an extraordinary whip, but this
unusual greeting was a benediction. The whip, known as Jai Maìgala,
would bestow love of God on anyone it touched. Çré Abhiräma and his
wife, Mäliëé, showed deep affection for Çréniväsa. Not only did they
bless him with their famous whip, but they gave him valuable
instructions and reiterated the importance of going to Våndävana as
soon as possible.
While continuing his journey, Çréniväsa stopped in
Katwa, where his father had seen Lord Caitanya adopt the renounced
order. Next he passed through Agradvépa, where the three famous Ghosh
brothers—Väsudeva, Govinda, and Mädhava—had established their temple,
and then he proceeded to Ekacakra, the birthplace of Nityänanda Prabhu.
Finally, Çréniväsa made one last stop in Jajigram to say farewell to
his aging mother and to visit Narahari Sarakära, his beloved guru.
Narahari was concerned about Çréniväsa's delay in going to Våndävana
and asked him to leave immediately.
And so, without further delay Çréniväsa set out for Vraja. By this time he had achieved adulthood.
The Journey to Vraja
Sanätana Gosvämé had left this mortal world, and Rüpa Gosvämé could not
bear the separation. Çré Rüpa felt that he, too, might not survive to
instruct Çréniväsa, so he asked his distinguished disciple (and nephew)
Jéva Gosvämé to care for Çréniväsa.
Traveling in those days, mostly
by foot, was difficult. Nonetheless, Çréniväsa was making determined
progress, stopping briefly on the way in Benares to visit the house of
Candraçekhara Äcärya, where Lord Caitanya had lived for two months.
Here Çréniväsa met an elderly disciple of Candraçekhara who invited him
for a meal and showed him the places associated with Çré Caitanya.
Çréniväsa reached Prayag (known today as Allahabad) and spent the night
there. Four days before arriving in Våndävana, he heard that Sanätana
had passed away four months earlier. And when he reached Mathurä, he
learned that Rüpa Gosvämé had passed away only three days earlier.
Çréniväsa fell to the ground, crying like a madman. He felt himself the
most unfortunate person in the universe. He had failed to meet Lord
Caitanya and to study the Bhägavatam with Gadädhara Paëòita. Now he had
failed to meet Rüpa and Sanätana.
While Çréniväsa sat beneath a tree
wishing for his own death, Rüpa and Sanätana appeared to him on the
pretext of a dream and told him he was the embodiment of Lord
Caitanya's love. They encouraged him to proceed to Våndävana to take
shelter of Gopäla Bhaööa Gosvämé and to study under Çré Jéva with all
his life and soul.
Jéva and Gopäla Bhaööa Gosvämés
WORDS OF Çré Sanätana and Rüpa somewhat relieved Çréniväsa’s heavy
heart. He could travel again, and soon he felt the dust of Våndävana
beneath his feet. He approached Rüpa Gosvämé’s Govindadeva Temple
hoping to find more solace at Lord Govinda’s lotus feet.
Çréniväsa sat before the Deity, Jéva Gosvämé and his many followers
entered the temple. Çréniväsa introduced himself, and Çré Jéva greeted
him with warmth and loving hospitality. Çréniväsa spent the night in
comfortable quarters at Çré Jéva’s temple, Çré Çré Rädhä-Dämodara. The
next day, Çréniväsa offered his homage at the tomb of Çré Rüpa in the
Then Jéva introduced Çréniväsa to Gopäla Bhaööa
Gosvämé, who greeted him with kind words and expressed his
disappointment that Çréniväsa had not arrived sooner, as Rüpa and
Sanätana had been anxious to meet him. Gopäla Bhaööa took Çréniväsa to
his Rädhä-Ramaëa Temple and asked the Deity there to bless him. Gopäla
Bhaööa Gosvämé and Jéva Gosvämé gradually introduced Çréniväsa to the
inhabitants of Vraja.
Narottama and Duùkhé Kåñëadäsa
Bhaööa Gosvämé initiated Çréniväsa and taught him. And as Jéva Gosvämé
was the preeminent Vaiñëava philosopher of the period, Gopäla Bhaööa
directed Çréniväsa to him for higher instruction, all in accordance
with the desires of Lord Caitanya and Rüpa and Sanätana Gosvämés. The
Prema-viläsa states that Çré Jéva took care of Çréniväsa and gave him a
thorough spiritual education.
Another young scholar, the illustrious
Narottama, had been studying under Jéva for one year when Çréniväsa
arrived in Våndävana. Narottama had been initiated by Lokanätha
Gosvämé, who had sent him to Çré Jéva for additional spiritual
instructions. Then young Duùkhé Kåñëadäsa came, sent by his guru,
Hådaya Caitanya. The three young devotees studied under Jéva Gosvämé
with the utmost enthusiasm and became his best students. They were
widely known as inseparable friends. Jéva Gosvämé ordered them to study
the forests of Våndävana with Räghava Paëòita, who knew all the sacred
groves and their significance.
Eventually Çréniväsa, Narottama, and
Duùkhé Kåñëadäsa were given a special mission. They were to distribute
the books of the Gosvämés—the bhakti-rasa scriptures—in Bengal and
other areas. Vaiñëavism was widely embraced in Bengal, but literature
explaining the Vaiñëava philosophy was wanting. Nityänanda Prabhu’s
wife, Jähnavä Devé, had visited Rüpa and Sanätana in Våndävana some
years earlier and was well aware of the prolific spiritual literature
the Våndävana Gosvämés were producing, so she contacted Jéva Gosvämé
and suggested that the books be sent to Bengal. To comply, Çré Jéva
summoned his three best men.
The Mission Begins
In a large
assembly of Vaiñëavas, Çré Jéva called forth Narottama Däsa: “From this
day forward, you will be known as Narottama Öhäkura Mahäçaya.” Then he
called Çréniväsa: “You will be known as Çréniväsa Äcärya.” And finally,
Duùkhé Kåñëadäsa: “Because you have brought so much pleasure [änanda]
to Rädhäräëé [Çyämä], you will now be called Çyämänanda.” Then Çré Jéva
told them of their mission to Bengal, Orissa, and other provinces of
Çréniväsa, Narottama, and Çyämänanda did not want to leave
Våndävana, but they understood the importance of their mission. They
went to their initiating gurus, who gave their blessings, instilling in
them the necessary enthusiasm for the task.
Çré Jéva began the
preparations for the long and arduous journey. These devotees were his
best students, and he would spare no pains for their welfare. He had a
rich merchant disciple from Mathurä supply a large cart, four strong
bullocks, and ten armed guards. The manuscripts—original works by Rüpa,
Sanätana, Gopäla Bhaööa, Raghunätha Däsa, Jéva, and others—were placed
in a large wooden chest, which was bolted and covered with a waxed
cloth. Çré Jéva also secured a special passport from the king of Jaipur
that his three students would need to show as they traveled to eastern
India. Then Çréniväsa, Narottama, and Çyämänanda left Våndävana.
The Journey to Bengal
they began traveling, Çré Jéva and several other devotees accompanied
them, unable to bear being separated. As the caravan neared Agra, the
well-wishers stayed behind. Now the journey was underway. There could
be no turning back.
After many months, the party reached a small
village named Gopälapura, just within the boundaries of the Malla
kingdom of Vana Viñëupura, in Bengal. When they retired that night,
they felt confident that their mission was almost complete.
is in the district of Birbhum, bounded on the north by the Santhal
Pargannas and on the south by Midnapura. The king of Viñëupura,
Vérhamvér, was the leader of a strong group of bandits who were the
terror of the adjoining countries. He had employed a large number of
thugs and assassins who infested the highways and killed and robbed
wayfarers. The astrologers of the court were ever ready to submit to
him confidential reports as to what fortunes the stars would grant him
if he carried on robberies in particular localities.
Stealing the Books
king’s dacoits had been following the cart from afar. This cart was
especially interesting because the king’s astrologers had said that it
held a great treasure. Although the dacoits had been following the cart
for quite a distance, they thought it wise to wait until the cart
reached their own kingdom.
The dacoits saw only fifteen men
escorting the cart—ten armed soldiers, two cartmen, and three holy men.
The band of dacoits, numbering over two hundred, inflamed one another’s
imaginations with the astrologers’ words: “This cart is filled with
jewels more valuable than gold.” They almost overtook the party in a
village named Tamar, but circumstances did not permit it. They followed
the party through the towns of Raghunäthapura and Païcävati.
in Gopälapura, the party spent the night near a beautiful lake. All
fifteen men slept soundly, tired from the journey. When they awakened,
their worst nightmare had come to pass: the manuscripts had been stolen.
could not contain their tears. Çréniväsa, the leader of the party,
advised Narottama and Çyämänanda to proceed to Bengal and Orissa with
the teachings of the six Gosvämés. He would take it upon himself to
retrieve the manuscripts. He wrote to Jéva Gosvämé and told him all
that had happened.
The King’s Regret
Meanwhile, as King
Vérhamvér was rummaging through treasures stolen from various
travelers, his servants appeared with the court’s most recent
acquisition—Çréniväsa’s carefully wrapped chest of “the most precious
jewels.” Vérhamvér dropped everything else and feverishly unwrapped his
latest prize. Having heard the prophesies, he could scarcely imagine
what splendors awaited him. In one suspenseful moment, he removed the
cloth covering and opened the trunk to reveal—manuscripts.
the priceless treasure? Lifting out the top manuscript in disbelief,
the king saw the signature “Çré Rüpa Gosvämé” written on a palm leaf.
When he examined further and began reading Çré Rüpa’s beautiful
exposition of Vaiñëava philosophy, he felt something change deep
within. He reverentially returned the book to the trunk and retired for
the evening, aware of the grave sin he had instigated.
Çréniväsa Appears in a Dream
night, the king had an unusual dream. He saw a beautiful and effulgent
person whose body was filled with divine energy. “Do not worry,” the
person said with a loving smile. “Soon I will come to Viñëupura and we
will meet. I will retrieve my manuscripts, and you will be relieved of
all sinful reactions. Your joy will be boundless. Know for certain that
you are my eternal servant and I am your eternal well-wisher.”
next morning the king awoke and started his life anew, waiting for the
day when the mysterious prediction of his dream would come to pass.
Çréniväsa Äcärya made his way to the outskirts of Viñëupura, where he
met a brähmaëa resident named Çré Kåñëa Vallabha. The two became
friends, and Kåñëa Vallabha invited Çréniväsa to be a guest in his
home. Gradually, Kåñëa Vallabha realized Çréniväsa’s exalted position
and surrendered to him as a disciple. In due course, Kåñëa Vallabha
mentioned that the king regularly convened a Bhägavatam study group for
all who were interested. Çréniväsa was curious about the nature of the
Bhägavatam presentation and asked Kåñëa Vallabha to take him to the
When they arrived,
Vyäsäcärya, the court paëòita, was reciting and commenting upon the
Bhägavatam. Çréniväsa was unimpressed but said nothing. The next day,
they found Vyäsäcärya pontificating in the same fashion. After two
weeks of the court paëòita, Çréniväsa could not contain himself, and
after the meeting he spoke to Vyäsäcärya.
“You, sir, do not follow
the text,” said Çréniväsa, “nor are your commentaries in line with
Çrédhara Svämé or the other standard exponents of Bhägavata philosophy.”
listened to Çréniväsa’s comments but ignored his advice. The king,
however, who was nearby, overheard what was said and found it
The next day at the recital Vyäsäcärya again attempted
to elucidate the esoteric section of the Bhägavatam that delineates Çré
Respectful but firm, Çréniväsa interrupted with a
question: “Sir, how can you comment on such confidential subjects
without referring to the statements of Çrédhara Svämé? You are
obviously unfamiliar with his work.”
Vyäsäcärya became angry. He
disliked being challenged in front of his sycophantic assembly, who
were accustomed only to his peculiar rendition of Bhägavatam commentary.
another word was said, however, the king began to defend Çréniväsa’s
position: “How is it that this brähmaëa scholar finds fault with your
explanations? Perhaps your interpretations are questionable.”
can interpret the texts better than I?” the arrogant Vyäsäcärya
replied. “This newcomer is an upstart, and he dares to question me in
the presence of Your Majesty.”
Then he turned to Çréniväsa. “If you
are such an authority on the Bhägavatam,” he said, “why don’t you come
sit here and explain these verses in a better way?”
to the challenge. He sang the Bhägavatam verses beautifully and then
commented upon them with great verve and authority. He drew upon
existing Vaiñëava explanations and yet offered his own unique
presentation. No one had ever heard such a masterly enunciation of
The king encouraged him to go on, allowing him
to speak for several hours. When he finished, the whole assembly
applauded, ecstatic with Çréniväsa’s contagious love for Kåñëa.
Vyäsäcärya could not believe his ears. He was defeated, but he was
King Vérhamvér was greatly moved. “No one has ever come to
this kingdom and shared so much love and scholarship in the way you
have,” he said to Çréniväsa. “Please, tell me your name and where you
“My name is Çréniväsa and I am a native of this
country,” said Çréniväsa. “I came here to see your magnificent court
and to relish the Bhägavatam.”
The king then gave him the best accommodations in the palace and asked him to stay as long as he liked.
The King Surrenders
that evening, the king asked Çréniväsa to dine with him, but Çréniväsa
said that he took only one humble meal per day and had already eaten.
Nonetheless, Vérhamvér encouraged him to have some fruit, and he
complied, not wanting to offend his distinguished host.
ate his fruit, the king sat at his side like a humble servant. The king
had never felt this way about anyone: Çréniväsa was that effulgent
person he had seen in his dream—his guru—and he wanted to render some
That night, he heard Çréniväsa repeating the name of
Kåñëa in his room. It seemed as if Çréniväsa did not sleep. “Here is a
genuine saint,” thought the king. “He is simply absorbed in the name of
God.” With this pleasant idea, the king fell asleep, listening to
Çréniväsa Äcärya’s blissful voice in the next room.
day in the great assembly Çréniväsa again spoke from the Bhägavatam.
Once again, the eager, expectant audience relished every word.
Çréniväsa astonished all who listened. Chroniclers of the event have
reported that “even the stone walls of the hall seemed to melt with
emotion.” Çréniväsa spoke with erudition, sensitivity, and devotion,
honoring his Vaiñëava predecessors, and everyone present agreed that
the wisdom of the orator far exceeded his years. One by one, people
came and bowed at Çréniväsa’s feet, hoping to become his disciples.
the king submitted himself to Çréniväsa as a lowly beggar: “You are the
real king,” he said, “for you have love for Kåñëa. I am not even worthy
to be in your presence.”
Çréniväsa, with all humility, merely shook his head; he was not able to accept his own exalted position.
But the king persisted: “Allow me to be your servant. Please! How can I serve you? My entire kingdom is at your disposal.”
came from the holy city of Våndävana with a mission from Gopäla Bhaööa
Gosvämé and Jéva Gosvämé,” Çréniväsa replied. “I was to bring their
writings to Bengal. But unfortunately this treasure was robbed within
your kingdom. If I cannot retrieve these books, I would prefer to lose
my life. Can you help me get them back?”
The king burst into tears.
“A poor worm am I,” he said, “lost hopelessly in this land of birth and
death. My own men pillaged for years and years under my order, and then
they came upon your party. We were told you carried the greatest
treasure in the universe, and we naturally pursued it. I cannot express
Reflecting for a moment, the king said, “But there is a
positive side to all of this. Our meeting would not have otherwise
occurred. I would commit these sins again and again for but a moment of
Çréniväsa laughed and reassured the king that
sinful life was unnecessary for attaining his association. Çréniväsa
then forgave the king for all his sins and asked him to sin no more.
The Books Are Safe!
king led Çréniväsa to the room where his treasures were kept, and
Çréniväsa saw the trunk with the Gosvämés’ literature. Çréniväsa felt
ecstasy and took the garland of flowers from his own neck and placed it
on King Vérhamvér. Çréniväsa asked the king to bring him tulasé leaves,
flower garlands, sandalwood paste, and other items to worship the
sacred books. The king brought everything, and his own initiation
ceremony followed. By reciting into the king’s ear the mahä-mantra—Hare
Kåñëa, Hare Kåñëa, Kåñëa Kåñëa, Hare Hare/ Hare Rama, Hare Rama, Rama
Rama, Hare Hare—Çréniväsa initiated him.
According to the
Prema-viläsa, Çréniväsa gave him the name Haricaraëa Däsa. Jéva Gosvämé
later showed the king special mercy by writing a letter in which he
renamed him Caitanya Däsa. The king’s wife, Queen Sulakñaëä, and their
son, Prince Dhäré Hamvér, also became Çréniväsa Äcärya’s surrendered
servants. The queen’s initiated name is unknown, but the boy was named
Gopäla Däsa. Kåñëa Vallabha and Vyäsäcärya also became dedicated
Viñëupura as a Vaiñëava Center
The initiation of
the king and his loyal subjects was an important event in the history
of the Gauòéya tradition. Viñëupura soon became a great center of
Vaiñëavism. In all of India, only in Vana Viñëupura did Gauòéya
Vaiñëava culture and art develop without foreign or distracting
influence. Even the Muslim intrusion was minimal. Consequently, the
architectural and sculptural art of Bengal, from the beginning of the
seventeenth century onwards, is nowhere found in such abundance and in
such pristine form as in the Vaiñëava monuments of Viñëupura. This is
one of the many virtues of royal patronage.
King Vérhamvér reigned
from 1596 to 1622 and in that time wrote many songs in praise of Kåñëa,
Lord Caitanya Mahäprabhu, and Çréniväsa Äcärya. Much of his exquisite
poetry can be found in the Bhakti-ratnäkara and the Päda-kalpataru. The
king’s beautiful voice, reflected in his literary work, helped him in
his mission of spreading Vaiñëavism throughout his domain.
had thus accomplished his mission in Viñëupura. He wrote to Jéva
Gosvämé that not only had the books been retrieved but the main bandit,
a king, had taken up Gauòéya Vaiñëavism. All of Våndävana rejoiced and
sang the glories of Çréniväsa Äcärya. King Vérhamvér and his entire
kingdom were now converted to Vaiñëavism, and Çréniväsa was developing
an important center there.
PART III (Conclusion)
working for the king of Viñëupura stole priceless manuscripts Çréniväsa
and his friends were bringing to Bengal. Çréniväsa therefore sent his
companions ahead while he stayed in Viñëupura. He recovered the
manuscripts, made the king his disciple, and inspired him to spread
Kåñëa consciousness throughout the kingdom.
NOW ÇRÉNIVÄSA needed
to see his dear friends Narottama and Çyämänanda again. He had written
them of the developments in Viñëupura, but he knew little of what his
friends were doing. He had heard that his teacher Narahari Sarakära
Öhäkura was ill and getting ready to die, so he wanted to go to
Çrékhanda to see him and to nearby Jajigram to see his own aging mother.
Çréniväsa Returns to Jajigram
farewell to King Vérhamvér, Çréniväsa took the chest of books to
Jajigram. Upon arriving there, he told the devotees what had happened.
All the holy town’s people, especially his mother, rejoiced in his
company. But they had heart-breaking news for him as well: Çrématé
Viñëupriyä had left this world. Çrématé Viñëupriyä was Çré Caitanya’s
widow, an important person in the preaching mission of Bengal. On
hearing of her passing, Çréniväsa fainted, and the devotees had to
revive and console him.
A few days later, a message came from
Narahari Sarakära and Raghunandana Öhäkura asking Çréniväsa to come to
Çrékhanda. Çréniväsa left at once to see these two well-wishers who had
guided him in his youth. During this meeting, Narahari suggested that
Çréniväsa get married.
“Your mother is a great devotee,” Çré
Narahari said. “She has been rendering valuable service in Jajigram for
many years. You should fulfill whatever small desire she might have. I
know she would be happy to see you married. Since she is a great
devotee, you should comply.”
Hearing this, Çréniväsa resolved to marry and raise a family.
a few more days in Çrékhanda, Çréniväsa left for Kanthak Nagara to
visit the great Gadädhara Däsa, one of the personal associates of
Caitanya Mahäprabhu. When Çréniväsa arrived, Gadädhara Däsa embraced
him with affection. He asked Çréniväsa about the devotees of Våndävana,
especially the Gosvämés: How were they able to live in separation from
the Lord and His confidential devotees? Where were they living and
under what conditions? Gadädhara Däsa and Çréniväsa talked about
Caitanya Mahäprabhu and the plight of His devotees in His absence.
several days, Çréniväsa was to return to Jajigram. Before he left,
Gadädhara Däsa blessed him: “One day you will taste the nectar of
congregational chanting in the company of the Lord Himself, and in the
company of His intimate associates. For now, you have my blessings to
marry. May it bring you all good fortune.”
Çréniväsa Gets Married
words of Gadädhara Däsa touched Çréniväsa. Meditating on their import,
he returned to Jajigram, where he met Gopäla Cakravarté, an elderly
brähmaëa with a beautiful and devoted daughter named Draupadé.
Observing that Çréniväsa and Draupadé were attracted to each other, Çré
Raghunandana Öhäkura arranged the wedding.
After the marriage,
Draupadé was called Éçvaré (some say it was her initiated name),
honoring her devotion to God and acknowledging her marriage to a great
saint. Her father, Gopäla Cakravarté, soon accepted Çréniväsa as his
spiritual master, as did her two brothers, Çyäma Däsa and Rämacandra.
Çréniväsa quickly became one of the most prominent gurus in all of
After some time, Éçvaré bore a son, and when Çréniväsa wrote
about the event to Jéva Gosvämé in Våndävana, Jéva sent back an
exuberant reply and named the boy Våndävana Vallabha. Some time after,
Çréniväsa married again (polygamy was common then). His second wife,
Padmavaté, was also a great devotee, and after initiation she was known
as Gauräìga Priyä.
One may wonder why Çréniväsa took a second wife.
Most of the standard biographies do not elaborate, stating merely that
the second marriage followed the first by a few years. But the
Anurägavalé informs us that his most intimate disciples asked that he
remarry upon the death of his two sons from Éçvaré. They are said to
have died young.
Içvari had three daughters—Hemlatä, Kåñëa-priyä,
and Kaïcana, also known as Yamunä. Gauräìga Priyä had a son, Gati
Govinda. Both Éçvaré and her daughters later had many disciples, and
Çréniväsa’s bloodline is still said to continue in Våndävana from Gati
The Passing of Narahari Sarakära
Some time after
Çréniväsa’s marriage, Narahari Sarakära Öhäkura left the world, having
seen Çréniväsa one last time. Çréniväsa organized a massive festival to
honor Narahari’s memory. Everyone from Çrékhanda and neighboring
villages attended, and Vaiñëava festivals soon spread throughout the
region. Ceremonies to install Deities of Kåñëa took place with
elaborate festivities, including singing, dancing, and sharing of
sacred food (prasädam). By such festivals the Hare Kåñëa movement
spread throughout Bengal.
course, Çréniväsa decided to return to Våndävana. Rämacandra Kaviräja,
one of his most renowned followers, went with him on this trip.
Rämacandra was considered Çréniväsa’s “other eye and other arm.”
Rämacandra and his brother, Govinda, who was also Çréniväsa’s disciple,
were the sons of an intimate associate of Lord Caitanya. Both
Rämacandra and Govinda were celebrated scholars, artists, and poets,
but Rämacandra came to be widely accepted as Çréniväsa’s most
noteworthy disciple. This was in some measure due to Narottama Däsa
Öhäkura, who at Çréniväsa’s request took charge of Rämacandra and
forged an intimate friendship with him while schooling him in all the
details of Vaiñëava philosophy.
With the help of King Vérhamvér of
Viñëupura, Çréniväsa spread his preaching in Bengal to the districts of
Birbhum, Bankura, Burdwan, and as far as Tripura in the East. He taught
all over Bengal and made hundreds of disciples.
the list of his prominent disciples, Hemlatä Öhäkuräëé, his daughter,
is often added. Although as a blood relation she is not properly
counted a disciple, she was one of his most notable followers. A highly
educated and vigorous preacher, she has been compared to the revered
Jähnavä Devé in spreading the movement throughout Bengal. She was a
gifted and devoted leader, initiating both men and women into the
Gauòiyä Vaiñëava tradition. One of her disciples, Yadunandana Öhäkura,
became a famous scholar and poet. He composed simple Bengali
versifications of Gauòiyä literature, some at her personal request.
time she married a great devotee and had several children. Today her
descendants live in the villages of Maliati and Budhaipad, in the
Murshidabad district of Bengal, where she revolutionized the preaching
of Gauòiyä Vaiñëavism.
Çréniväsa Returns to Våndävana
had not been to Våndävana since recovering the stolen books. The
Gosvämés were eager to show their appreciation, and when Çréniväsa
arrived they did so gloriously. And now Çréniväsa had come to Våndävana
with Rämacandra Kaviräja. Such a worthy disciple showed Çréniväsa’s
merit as a preacher. So Gopäla Bhaööa Gosvämé, who had wanted Çréniväsa
to take over the worship of the Rädhä-Ramaëa Deity in Våndävana, gave
the duty to his other disciple, Gopénätha Püjäré, and insisted that
Çréniväsa keep preaching in Bengal. The descendants of Gopénätha’s
brothers are still in charge of the Rädhä-Ramaëa temple.
Paëòita returned to Våndävana about the same time as Çréniväsa, so they
were able to deepen their friendship. Together they resumed their
studies. Gradually, Çréniväsa began to reveal his mystic potency, and
it became apparent he was fully absorbed in the most intimate love of
Back to Viñëupura
But the missionary work was
incomplete, and after several months Çréniväsa and others returned to
Bengal, encouraged by the Våndävana Gosvämés. On the way, they stopped
in Vana Viñëupura to see King Vérhamvér, who was delighted by the
presence of his guru and the other devotees.
The king’s devotion showed throughout the kingdom. In the words of D.C. Sen:
Vira Hamvira would not do anything without the advice of his guru
[Çréniväsa Äcärya], even in political matters. His [Çréniväsa’s] voice
prevailed alike in the court and in the domestic circles of Vishnupura.
We find that repeating the name of God a fixed number of times was made
compulsory by penal law in the State. Sacrifice of animals at the altar
of the gods was also discountenanced, though not actually prohibited by
law. Worldly dignity attended the guru who had brought spiritual glory
to the country. We find that on every occasion of Vaishnava festivities
of any importance, valuable presents were given to Çrénivasa, while
Raja Vira Hamvira was ever ready to minister to his physical comforts
in every possible manner. But true to the traditions of a brahmin
scholar and saint, Çrénivasa contented himself with living in a
strawroofed hut, though he might have built palaces with the help of
the Raja and other influential disciples. The money he received was
mainly spent in feeding his disciples, of whom there was always a large
number residing at his house. 1
The Glories of Viñëupura
pervasiveness of Kåñëa consciousness in Bengal, especially in
Viñëupura, lasted well after the time of Çréniväsa and into the
following centuries. King Vérhamvér’s successor, Raghunätha Singh I,
built Vaiñëava temples in many distant villages to make Kåñëa
consciousness popular with the tribal people. In fact, the kings of
Viñëupura from the time of Vérhamvér onward assumed great
responsibility for the material and spiritual wellbeing of their
According to Dr. Sambidananda Das:
In short, the
Vaishnava kings, from Vira Hamvira downwards, developed Vaishnava
culture in all its branches. The practical religious lives of the kings
… made the people of Vishnupura God-fearing, virtuous, humble, and
courteous in manner and pure in heart. It is not an easy matter to make
the whole population happy and pious. [But] the people regarded their
kings as their gurus. To this day it is their custom to offer edibles
to Çré Caitanya’s altar in the name of the king, on the occasion of
public worship. Thus did Çrénivasa, through Raja Vira Hamvira, start a
new epoch in the religious life of the country.2
Çréniväsa’s Daily Activities
activities of Çréniväsa Äcärya can fill volumes, and they have. Several
books offer details of his daily life in Viñëupura and Jajigram.
the early morning he would read from scriptural books, explaining and
interpreting them for his disciples. The study of these books would
occupy him until ten o’clock in the morning. Then, till two in the
afternoon, he would chant on beads in solitude, occasionally worshiping
Krñëa according to his inner meditation. From four o’clock to six in
the evening he would perform congregational chanting with his
disciples. The form of kértana for which he became famous is called
Manohar Shoy. Some say it is the only authentic classical style that
has survived. At night he used to instruct his disciples and talk with
them of Kåñëa's pastimes.
His Literary Work
It is said that
Çréniväsa composed only five songs. He also wrote a commentary—studied
and respected to this day—on the four essential verses of the
Çrémad-Bhägavatam. His other works include the famous Gosvämy-añöakam
(“Eight Prayers to the Six Gosvämés”). Though his literary work is
spare, its content and style are nectarean. It has left a unique mark
on the Gauòiyä tradition.
Just as the
authorized biographers of Çré Caitanya Mahäprabhu leave aside the
details of His passing from this world, Çréniväsa’s followers are
silent about Çréniväsa’s disappearance. But although his divine
ascension remains a mystery, his life remains an inspiration.
1. D. C. Sen, The Vaishnava Literature of Mediaeval Bengal (Calcutta University, 1917), pp. 156–157.
Sambidananda Das, The History and Literature of Gaudiya Vaishnavas and
Their Relation to Medieval Vaishnava Schools, Unpublished Ph. D. Thesis
(Calcutta University, June 1935), p. 819.
Satyaräja Däsa is a
disciple of Çréla Prabhupäda and a regular contributor to Back to
Godhead. He has written several books on Kåñëa consciousness. He and
his wife live in New York City.